Nowadays we find biometric applications in areas like border control, national ID cards, e-banking, e-commerce, e-health etc. Large-scale applications such as the European Union SmartBorder Concept, the Visa Information System (VIS) and Unique Identification (UID) in India require high accuracy and also reliability, interoperability, scalability and usability. Many of these are joint requirements also for forensic applications.
Multimodal biometrics combined with fusion techniques can improve recognition performance. Efficient searching or indexing methods can accelerate identification efficiency. Additionally, quality of captured biometric samples can strongly influence the performance. Moreover, mobile biometrics is an emerging area and biometrics based smartphones can support deployment and acceptance of biometric systems.
However, concerns about security and privacy cannot be neglected. The relevant techniques in the area of presentation attack detection (liveness detection) and template protection are about to supplement biometric systems, in order to improve fake resistance, prevent potential attacks such as cross matching, identity theft etc.